Notes and References

Notes and References


Chapter 1 The Romans
1.    “A Walk around Old-Time Cockermouth”,Denwood, E.R. in Cockermouth and District Advertiser, 1946
2.    “A Guide to the Interesting Places in and around Cockermouth Askew, J, c. 1864, rev 1872
3.     “ Britannia”, Camden, W, 1586
4.     “Antonine Itinerary”, Gale, 1709
5.    “Iter Boreale”, Stukeley, W. p.51, 1725
6.    “Roman Roads in Britain”, T. Codrington, 1903
7.    Collingwood, R.G., CWAAS V2, (xiii), pp. 131-141, 1913
8.    Birley, E., CWAAS NS63, pp. 96-125 , 1961
9.    Charlesworth, D. CWAAS NS65, pp102-114 1961-2
10.    “Papcastle Vicus Excavation”, 1984, A. C. H. Olivier, Centre for North West Regional Studies
11.    The Site Reports, 1999 Time Team 99, Channel 4 Television
12.     Report on Archaeological Evaluation of land adjacent to Derventio, North Pennines Heritage Trust,
13.     CWAAS Series 3, VII, 2007 p.215 “, 2007
14.    History of Cockermouth, Bradbury, J.B., 3rd ed. 2006


Chapter 2 After the Romans to the 17th Century
1.    “Place-names of Cumberland”, Armstrong et al., English Place-name Society, Vol XXI, p 308, 1942-3
2.    E. Birley, ibid, p 98
3.    E. Birley, ibid, p 98
4.    From History & Antiquities of Cumberland Vol 2 (1794-7), Hutchinson
5.    According to long-time resident of Perth Cottage, Ted Hayton, this fragment came from Brigham.
6.    Bishop Nicholson, quoted in Bradbury’s “History of Cockermouth, p. 67,
7.    Ashley Firn, owner at the time reported frequent voices heard in the early hours of the morning but checking round showed nothing.:
8.    “Fate’s Ingenuity”, D. Bradbury, 2006 , a collection of unusual deaths in Cumberland (Cockermouth Library)
9.    From Marion Appleby, resident of Derwenydd next door in 2008- information obtained from Angela and Arnold Robinson now both deceased.
10.     Kerria Cottage: Plainly an early building but much modified. Peculiarly sited with other cottages surrounding it. The two ends of a truss which could be cruck roof support are visible and appear to be quite old, certainly in keeping with a 17thC date. The place is understood to have once housed a ”jerry”, a rough tavern, and in the 1861 census, John Robinson is listed a victualler, the third such in the village, so it may well be his place.[Shorter Oxford English Dictionary]
11.     Westworth Cottages: the two cottages appear to have been acquired in 1824, with references to an earlier deed of title (1777); West Corner remained with Westworth until 1938, Westgarth 1952.
12.     From Marion Appleby, resident of Derwenydd


Chapter 3 The Eighteenth Century
1.    Camp Farm House which is shown as belonging to William Hicks the owner of Westworth in 1763 (see estate map in Chapter 5) apparently remained under the auspices of the Lord of the Manor and was not sold until 1981
2.    Lynwood: unfortunately the deeds earlier than 1917 have been lost in recent times; judicious analysis of census records suggest occupiers back to 1841, but nothing before this.
3.    Bird-in-Hand: for many years a public house. Reputedly built in 1720 (which appears about right), we have a series of victuallers/innkeepers showing in the directories and census returns from 1841 through to 1901 – Humphrey Archer 1841, Thos Goulding 1947, John Moncrief 1858, 1861, Joseph Moncrief 1871, Francis Smith 1881 to 1901.
Derwent Cottage: seemingly predating the building of Derwent Lodge , although Derwent Lodge Cottage next door is either later or a rebuild at a later date.


Chapter 4 The Nineteenth Century
1.    From Jean Law, resident of Lindenside East in 2008.
2.     Sale details for The Mount, in 1857

Mount Sale 1857

3.    From Jack Sedgwick quoted by Graham Pratley


Chapter 5 Maps
1.    Estate map with Camp Farm deeds
2.    Extract from facsimile reproduction of Thomas Donald’s Map of Cumberland, 1774
3.    Extract from John Wood’s map 1832
4.    Draft Tithe Commutation Agreement 1838, Cumbria Record Office, Carlisle
5.    Ordnance Survey 1863-4, updated for 1874, printed 1884; combined sheets to cover the whole parish; property of the Parish Council.
6.    Ordnance Survey, 1900, still based on the 1863 survey
7.    A major source for information here has been “ Maps for Local History”, B. P. Hindle, Batsford, 1988


Chapter 7 The People of Papcastle
1.    1841-1901    Census details from
2.    1801 to 1821: White Directory of Cumberland 1829
3.    2001 Parish Profile from Census 2001, Cumbria CC
4.    1995 Regional Trends, Office for National Statistics, Information & Intelligence, 1997


Chapter 8 Papcastle Families
1.    Hutchinson, “The History and Antiquities of Cumberland, originally 1794-7, but this from the revised version about 1845. Ballantine- Dykes family archives are housed in the Cumbria Records Office, Carlisle Ref: DB
2.    ditto
3.    Westworth Deeds courtesy Dr. J Eldred
4.    Cockermouth Website:
5.    “The Harris Thread” , Aline Eliott, Cockermouth (Kirkgate) Museum Group
6.    “In search of Thomas Knight”, Alex D D Craik and Gloria Edwards
7.    “Cumberland Families and Heraldry”, Huddleston & Boumphrey
John Dalton Letter8.    Letter from John Dalton, supplied by Gloria Edwards, found in Worcestershire Record Office.
9.    Extract from an Article in the Villager, (Papcastle Newsletter) by Peter Donaghy, Autumn 2006
10.    Waugh Family: mainly recovered from Census data
11.    Tithe Commutation Agreement
12.    OS 25-inch map surveyed this year not published until 1874
13.    Jubilee pamphlet courtesy of Kirkgate Museum Group
14.    Bradbury’s “History of Cockermouth”
15.    Manor House deeds, courtesy of Frank Rushton
16.    Family details from an interview by Greg Greenhalgh with John (IV) Moses, Nov 2007
17.    Tithe Commutation Agreement, 1838; the only William Moses traced about this time is one born in Brigham, baptised 24 January 1813, with father Robert and mother Mary.
18.    Manifest of Cunard Line SS Ivernia 30th September 1902, Liverpool to Boston
19.    Married 29th November 1905; returned to UK on SS Saxonia, Boston to Liverpool in December 1905, with his wife Mary age 25 Passenger manifest. Mary died 1956.
20.    The little girl here with John II Moses, was Rachel Fleming from Orchard Cottage – 1971


Chapter 10 Parish Institutions
1.    The deeds of the properties leading to the provison of the Reading Room have been transcribed The Origins of the Village Hall Papcastle, Cumbna” 1992, E. C. Apperley. The account book from the beginning and the Minute Book from about 1927 have been deposited in the County Records Office
2.    Eric Apperley, a Village Hall Trustee 1973- 2000; chair 1973-1979, Secretary 1991-2000; resident at 21 The Mount from 1966.
3.    A major contributor to this revival was Sydney Hutchinson, recently retired from being Managing Director of Millers Footwear (in the Derwent Mills factory).
4.    Time Team was a popular archaeological TV programme on Channel 4, using a high-tech-supported approach to a three-day exploration with specific aims never intended as a full project.
5.    Hilary Halliwell co-ordinated a number of activity initiatives: embroidery group (Kathleen Scott-deceased 2003), computing (Eric Apperley); youth club (John Eldred); investment club (Brian Merris). Around the same time, David Bromley became secretary to the trustees and enhanced communications with the publication of the Papcastle & Belle Vue Village Hall Newsletter.
6.    Mike Apperley, brother of Eric; resident at The Hawthorns from 1989.
7.    Programme of activities in 2007-8

Mahjong Liz Smith Monday PM All year ex public hol.
Keep fit John McNamee Monday Even School term only
Life Art Susan Fleming Tuesday AM Fortnightly All year
Parish Council David Johnson 1st Tuesday Even Bi Monthly
Investment Brian Merris 2nd Tuesday Even Monthly
Orchestra Gill Greenhalgh 3rd Tuesday Even Monthly School term
Book Club Gill Hirst 4th Tuesday Even Monthly
Tai Chi Judith Brown Wednesday PM School term only
Lakeland Writers Sarah Barnes Wednesday Even Monthly
Embroidery Marilyn Pickthall Thursday PM Weekly
Kurling Mike Apperley Thursday Even Weekly
Pop In Janice Curr Friday AM Weekly
Local History Eric Apperley Wednesday Even Bi monthly
Line Dancing Carol Smith Fridays 3.00 – 4.30 Weekly

8.    The latest four issues of the Newsletter were made available on the village website
9.    Programme of W.I. 1939-40
WI Programme 1939

10.    Mannix and Whelan, Directory of Cumberland, 1847 <Post Office Directory of Cumberland, 1858
Women were only permitted to work in the Returned Letter office, under supervision from 1873; 1875 the Post Office imposed a marriage bar single women only on marriage they had to leave. “British Postal Museum and Archive website History.”
11.    Post Office Directory of Cumberland, 1858
12.    Women were only permitted to work in the Returned Letter office, under supervision from 1873; 1875 the Post Office imposed a marriage bar single women only on marriage they had to leave. “British Postal Museum and Archive website History.”
13.    Extract from Hutchinson, “The History and Antiquities of Cumberland, originally 1794-7, but this from the revised version about 1845.
14.     Site conveyed 1844, Ballentine-Dykes Estate DBD 8.7/2 Papers
15.    Parish councillors in 2009 were (with date when first elected)

Mr. J. D. Johnson     (1983) Chairman

Mrs. J. Day             (2005)

Mr. R. Henderson    (2003)

Mr. R. B. Jackson    (1983)

Mr. J Lightfoot        (2005)

Mr. D. MacRae        (1999)

Mr. B. R Merris        (1999)

Mr. D. Rushton        (1999)

Mr. G. D. Wood        (2000)


Chapter 11 Other parish businesses
1.    Rotherham & Co: have an archive deposit in Coventry Record Office not yet seen.
2.    Pump House carries a plaque declaring its date as 1810.
3.    Bradbury,op. cit p 96
4.    Photo from Cumbrian Railways Association
5.    John Jackson, as reported by Robert Jackson. Note: OS 1900 shows cattle pens at Papcastle station as well.
6.    History of Maryport & Carlisle Railway, H & M Jackson, (undated) p 75
7.    Stated by John Graham, in a discussion with Eric Apperley,September, 2007
8.    From Cumbrian Railways Association Database
9.    Bradbury, “Cockermouth in Pictures 5 (Rail, Road & River)”, p 9


Chapter 12 Parliamentary Representation
1.    Extracts from website:
2.    List of Papcastle electors, 1841

Electors 1841

3.    List of Papcastle electors, 1913

Electors List 1913

4.    Bradbury, op.cit. Chapter 21
5.    PRO Catalogue reference: HO 45/41, p. 48 (1 July 1841)
6.    Electoral Roll for 1974.


Chapter 13 Footpaths
1.    A full description of the footpaths and maps appears on the village website.


Chapter 14 Charities
1.   Extract from Hutchinson, “The History and Antiquities of Cumberland, originally 1794-7, but this from the revised version about 1845.
“Hospital…There is also an hospital which was endowed by Sir T. Lamplugh about the same time as the school, for “six poor aged persons of the religious poor.” It is endowed with the tithes of Redmain purchased from Leonard Dykes, Esq., of Warthole [Wardhall]. Mrs. Dykes is patroness. As regards “religious poor”, the patroness makes no distinction of sects, if poor, aged, and religiously disposed. The building itself has long since gone to decay, there being no funds for its restoration, and it is not of much consequence, that it is so, as helpless people, recipients of the stipends, live more conveniently with their friends than in an isolated building.”


Appendix 1. Future Sources